- a floppy installation disk
- DOS command line
a a network using FTP or HTTP protocols.
- in partition of hard drive to hold installation software.
Partitioning of Hard disk (CCC Notes in English Download)
It is a very important step and based on the knowledge of existing hardware. The planning process should also take into consideration the future expansion of the system, knowing how to allocate the hard disk space for each of the Linux software is a real big challenge every Linux system administrator has to take.
Hard disk is divided in following partitions for Linux system:
(a) /swap directory about double of the RAM size.
(b) /roots directory About 60°/o of the available space.
(c) bin directory About 20°/o of the available space.
(d) /usr directory Remaining space of disk.
Booting Process of Linux (CCC NIELIT Book PDF Download)
Once the operating system of Linux is loaded, kernel takes over and performs the needed operations:
(a) Initializes the RAM disk image.
(b) Performs timing tests.
(c) Parse for any boot time kernel arguments.
(d) Recognize, sets-up and initializes the CPU.
(e) Sets up kernel memory and process handling.
(f) Opens a console for displaying kernel boot messages.
(g) Initializes configured system devices.
(h) Starts memory handling.
(i) Sets up and mounts the file system.
(j) Starts the init command.
(k) It will show the “Login Prompt”.
The use interface is one of the most important parts of any operating system because it allows users to easily access the applications and the hardware. The user can interact with the computer by using main’s two kinds of interfaces:
Character User Interface (CUI) This is a mechanism of interacting with a computer system or software by typing commands to perform specific tasks. Programs with character user interface are generally easier to automate via scripting. CUI only use text types one after another just as commands used in MS-DOS.
Graphical User Interface (GUI) this is a computer program that enables a user to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols, visual metaphors and pointing devices. This operating system use icons and menus to carryout commands. The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation in 1970s. GUls can be found in hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, etc.
Windows (CCC Notes in English)
Window is an operating system program that communicates your instructions to the actual computer hardware and displays the results. It is based on Graphical User Interface (GUI). It is developed, marketed and sold by Microsoft.
The first i dependent version of MS-Windows, version 1.0 reused in 1985. Now-a-days Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7 and 8 are the most widely used operating systems. Windows XP is an operating system introduced in 2001 by Microsoft.
When you turn ON the computer then the first screen, which will display on the computer is known as desktop. The background image of desktop is called as Wallpaper.
A small arrow or blinking symbol, moving on the desktop is called as Cursor. Desktop contains Start Menu, Task Bar, Icons, etc.
Some important components of desktop are described below:
A small image of a program shown on the desktop with program name, is known as Icon. Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs and other items.
When user double click or open an icon, the associated file or program will be opened. If the user right click on the icon, the various properties of icon are displayed. An icon can be moved on screen from one place to another by dragging the mouse.
Some of the icons displayed on desktop are as follows:
(i) My Computer It is the most important icon on the desktop, which contains icons of document folders, hard disk’s partition, each removable disk drive, etc.
(ii) Recycle Bin It is also a form of icon on the desktop, which contains deleted ifie, folders or shortcuts. If we delete a file or folder, then it goes to recycle bin.
(iii) Shortcut It is an icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
(iv) My Document This folder contains all your files, which you have created and saved in it. This folder contains all types of file formats like Word processor, Excel, PowerPoint, Image, etc.
(v) My Network Places It consists of all network connections, which make possible to connect the computer with network.
Initially, the long horizontal box at the bottom of our desktop is known as task bar. Generally, task bar consists of three parts:
- Start Button
- Middle Section
- Notification Area
The Start menu is the main gateway- of our computer’s program such as file, balder and settings. Start menu also contains most recently opened program.
Some options of Start menu are as flows:
(i) All Programs
(ii) Help and Support
(iii) My Documents
(iv) Control Panel
(vi) Log Off
(vii) Turn Off
To run a program, follow the given steps:
Step 1 Click the Start button on desktop.
Step 2 Take the mouse pointer on All Programs. By doing this, list of all programs will be displayed on right side. This list is known as Program menu. \
Steps 3: In this Program menu, you can run any application by double clicking (or right clicking) it.
Structure of a Window
Window is a rectangular area which provides an environment to run many programs. It allow a user to work with multiple programs or view multiple programs at once. A window include title bar, menu bar, scroll bar, status bar, etc in it.
It is the horizontal bar at the top of a window that displays the name of the window or the program, which
is currently being used.